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**Author**: Gregory H. Moore

**Publisher:** Courier Corporation

**ISBN:** 0486488411

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **450

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**Book Description**
"This book chronicles the work of mathematician Ernst Zermelo (1871-1953) and his development of set theory's crucial principle, the axiom of choice. It covers the axiom's formulation during the early 20th century, the controversy it engendered, and its current central place in set theory and mathematical logic. 1982 edition"--

**Author**: G.H. Moore

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 1461394783

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **412

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**Book Description**
This book grew out of my interest in what is common to three disciplines: mathematics, philosophy, and history. The origins of Zermelo's Axiom of Choice, as well as the controversy that it engendered, certainly lie in that intersection. Since the time of Aristotle, mathematics has been concerned alternately with its assumptions and with the objects, such as number and space, about which those assumptions were made. In the historical context of Zermelo's Axiom, I have explored both the vagaries and the fertility of this alternating concern. Though Zermelo's research has provided the focus for this book, much of it is devoted to the problems from which his work originated and to the later developments which, directly or indirectly, he inspired. A few remarks about format are in order. In this book a publication is indicated by a date after a name; so Hilbert 1926, 178 refers to page 178 of an article written by Hilbert, published in 1926, and listed in the bibliography.

**Author**: G. H. Moore

**Publisher:**
**ISBN:** 9781461394792

**Category : **
**Languages : **en

**Pages : **428

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**Book Description**

**Author**: John Lane Bell

**Publisher:** Studies in Logic. Mathematical

**ISBN:** 9781904987543

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **248

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**Book Description**
This book presents an overview of the development of the Axiom of Choice since its introduction by Zermelo at the beginning of the last century. The book surveys the Axiom of Choice from three perspectives. The first, or mathematical perspective, is that of the "working mathematician". This perspective brings into view the manifold applications of the Axiom of Choice-usually in the guise of Zorn s Lemma- in a great variety of areas of mathematics. The second, foundational, perspective is that of the logician or constructive mathematician concerned with the foundational status of the Axiom of Choice. The third, topos-theoretical, perspective is that taken by the mathematician or logician investigating the role of the Axiom of Choice in topos theory. Certain topics-for instance mathematical applications of the Axiom, and its relationship with logic-are discussed in considerable detail. Others-notably the consistency and independence of the Axiom of the usual systems of set theory-are given no more than summary treatment, the justification here being that these topics have been given full expositions elsewhere. It is hoped that the book will be of interest to logicians and mathematicians, both professional and prospective.

**Author**: Jean van Heijenoort

**Publisher:** Harvard University Press

**ISBN:** 0674257243

**Category : **Philosophy

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **684

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**Book Description**
The fundamental texts of the great classical period in modern logic, some of them never before available in English translation, are here gathered together for the first time. Modern logic, heralded by Leibniz, may be said to have been initiated by Boole, De Morgan, and Jevons, but it was the publication in 1879 of Gottlob Frege’s Begriffsschrift that opened a great epoch in the history of logic by presenting, in full-fledged form, the propositional calculus and quantification theory. Frege’s book, translated in its entirety, begins the present volume. The emergence of two new fields, set theory and foundations of mathematics, on the borders of logic, mathematics, and philosophy, is depicted by the texts that follow. Peano and Dedekind illustrate the trend that led to Principia Mathematica. Burali-Forti, Cantor, Russell, Richard, and König mark the appearance of the modern paradoxes. Hilbert, Russell, and Zermelo show various ways of overcoming these paradoxes and initiate, respectively, proof theory, the theory of types, and axiomatic set theory. Skolem generalizes Löwenheim’s theorem, and he and Fraenkel amend Zermelo’s axiomatization of set theory, while von Neumann offers a somewhat different system. The controversy between Hubert and Brouwer during the twenties is presented in papers of theirs and in others by Weyl, Bernays, Ackermann, and Kolmogorov. The volume concludes with papers by Herbrand and by Gödel, including the latter’s famous incompleteness paper. Of the forty-five contributions here collected all but five are presented in extenso. Those not originally written in English have been translated with exemplary care and exactness; the translators are themselves mathematical logicians as well as skilled interpreters of sometimes obscure texts. Each paper is introduced by a note that sets it in perspective, explains its importance, and points out difficulties in interpretation. Editorial comments and footnotes are interpolated where needed, and an extensive bibliography is included.

**Author**: Craig Nicholas Bach

**Publisher:**
**ISBN:**
**Category : **
**Languages : **en

**Pages : **70

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**Book Description**

**Author**: Michael Hallett

**Publisher:** Oxford University Press

**ISBN:** 9780198532835

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **372

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**Book Description**
Cantor's ideas formed the basis for set theory and also for the mathematical treatment of the concept of infinity. The philosophical and heuristic framework he developed had a lasting effect on modern mathematics, and is the recurrent theme of this volume. Hallett explores Cantor's ideas and, in particular, their ramifications for Zermelo-Frankel set theory.

**Author**: Lorenz Halbeisen

**Publisher:** Springer Nature

**ISBN:** 3030522792

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **236

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**Book Description**
This book provides a concise and self-contained introduction to the foundations of mathematics. The first part covers the fundamental notions of mathematical logic, including logical axioms, formal proofs and the basics of model theory. Building on this, in the second and third part of the book the authors present detailed proofs of Gödel’s classical completeness and incompleteness theorems. In particular, the book includes a full proof of Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem which states that it is impossible to prove the consistency of arithmetic within its axioms. The final part is dedicated to an introduction into modern axiomatic set theory based on the Zermelo’s axioms, containing a presentation of Gödel’s constructible universe of sets. A recurring theme in the whole book consists of standard and non-standard models of several theories, such as Peano arithmetic, Presburger arithmetic and the real numbers. The book addresses undergraduate mathematics students and is suitable for a one or two semester introductory course into logic and set theory. Each chapter concludes with a list of exercises.

**Author**: Heinz Dieter Ebbinghaus

**Publisher:** Springer

**ISBN:** 3662479974

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **384

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**Book Description**
This biography sheds light on all facets of the life and the achievements of Ernst Zermelo (1871-1953). Zermelo is best-known for the statement of the axiom of choice and his axiomatization of set theory. However, he also worked in applied mathematics and mathematical physics. His dissertation, for example, promoted the calculus of variations, and he created the pivotal method in the theory of rating systems. The presentation of Zermelo's work explores motivations, aims, acceptance, and influence. Selected proofs and information gleaned from letters add to the analysis. The description of his personality owes much to conversations with his late wife Gertrud. This second edition provides additional information. The system of citations has been adapted to that of Zermelo's Collected Works in order to facilitate side-by-side reading and thus profit from the thorough commentaries written for the Collected Works by experts in the respective fields. All facts presented are documented by appropriate sources. The biography contains nearly 50 photos and facsimiles.

**Author**: Michiel Hazewinkel

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 1556080085

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **556

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**Book Description**
This ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS aims to be a reference work for all parts of mathe matics. It is a translation with updates and editorial comments of the Soviet Mathematical Encyclopaedia published by 'Soviet Encyclopaedia Publishing House' in five volumes in 1977-1985. The annotated translation consists of ten volumes including a special index volume. There are three kinds of articles in this ENCYCLOPAEDIA. First of all there are survey-type articles dealing with the various main directions in mathematics (where a rather fme subdivi sion has been used). The main requirement for these articles has been that they should give a reasonably complete up-to-date account of the current state of affairs in these areas and that they should be maximally accessible. On the whole, these articles should be understandable to mathematics students in their first specialization years, to graduates from other mathematical areas and, depending on the specific subject, to specialists in other domains of science, en gineers and teachers of mathematics. These articles treat their material at a fairly general level and aim to give an idea of the kind of problems, techniques and concepts involved in the area in question. They also contain background and motivation rather than precise statements of precise theorems with detailed definitions and technical details on how to carry out proofs and constructions. The second kind of article, of medium length, contains more detailed concrete problems, results and techniques.