Surface Characterization Techniques

Surface Characterization Techniques PDF Author: Rawesh Kumar
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110656485
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 207

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Book Description
This book covers 10 surface characterization techniques divided into three sections. The first section covers the theoretical background, instrumentation and their salient features and a general understanding behind the results. The second section delves into deeper discussion of every terminology and concept. The third section is composed of 5 sets of examples from different research papers for every technique.

Surface Characterization Methods

Surface Characterization Methods PDF Author: Andrew J. Milling
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824773366
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 432

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Book Description
"Outlines the scientific basis and experimental methods for a broad sample of surface analysis techniques, drawing heavily from established principles of physical and analytical chemistry. Sketches a simple low-cost method of tracking particles in three dimensions."

Surface Characterization Techniques

Surface Characterization Techniques PDF Author: Rawesh Kumar
Publisher: de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110655995
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 310

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Book Description
This books covers 12 surface characterization techniques divided into three sections. The first section covers the theoretical background, instrumentation and their salient features and a general understanding behind the results. The second section delves into deeper discussion of every terminology and concept. The third section is composed of 10 sets of examples from different research papers for every technique.

Surface Characterization

Surface Characterization PDF Author: Dag Brune
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527612440
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 715

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Book Description
"Surface Characterization" provides an authoritative guide to the wide range of powerful techniques that are used to characterize the surfaces of materials. Practical in approach, it not only describes the major analytical techniques but emphasizes how they can be used to solve a multitude of chemical and physical problems. A special feature of the book is that the various techniques are grouped according to the material property under investigation. These parts are preceded by an overview comparing the capabilities of the characterization methods available. Extensive data tables allow the reader to assess rapidly the strengths as well as the pitfalls inherent in each method. Chapters on chemical composition, optical and crystallographic properties, microtopography, surface processes, tribological, electrical and magnetic properties of surface films are featured. In addition, chapters specializing on applications within the life sciences on the microscopic scale and chemometrics are included. "Surface Characterization" is addressed to both academic and industrial audiences. Scientists and engineers working on the production and development of new materials will find it an invaluable reference source. Physicist, chemists, chemical engineers, material scientists and engineers from every area of materials research will benefit from the wealth of practical advice the book provides.

Catalysts and Surfaces

Catalysts and Surfaces PDF Author: B. Viswanathan
Publisher: Alpha Science International Limited
ISBN: 9781842653159
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 236

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Book Description
Surfaces have always been fascinating for scientists, since nearly all chemical and biological transformations occur at the interface. In the last four decades or so, a variety of surface analytical techniques have been developed to examine both static and dynamic aspects of surfaces and interfaces. The information that could be obtained by employing these techniques can be varied, but can reach the limit of directly observing even in visual mode (by suitable microscopy) the interactions and morphologies up to molecular level resolution or deducing the nature of transformations at molecular level by appropriate electron, ion, photon induced spectroscopic techniques. There are also a variety of techniques based on thermal input. It is clear that all these analytical tools have changed our ability to examine the surfaces and surface induced transformations to a high degree of molecular resolution and the present book considers some of them with appropriate case studies.

Polymer Surface Characterization

Polymer Surface Characterization PDF Author: Luigia Sabbatini
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110701146
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 403

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Book Description
This fully updated edition provides a broad approach to the surface analysis of polymers being of high technological interest. Modern analytical techniques, potential applications and recent advances in instrumental apparatus are discussed. The self-consistent chapters are devoted to techniques from photoelectron spectroscopy to electron microscopies and wettability.

Surface and Interface Characterization by Electron Optical Methods

Surface and Interface Characterization by Electron Optical Methods PDF Author: Ugo Valdre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461595371
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 319

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Book Description
The importance of real space imaging and spatially-resolved spectroscopy in many of the most significant problems of surface and interface behaviour is almost self evident. To join the expertise of the tradi tional surface scientist with that of the electron microscopist has however been a slow and difficult process. In the past few years remarkable progress has been achieved, including the development of new techniques of scanning transmission and reflection imaging as well as low energy microscopy, all carried out in greatly improved vacuum conditions. Most astonishing of all has been the advent of the scanning tunneling electron microscope providing atomic resolution in a manner readily compatible with most surface science diagnostic procedures. The problem of beam damage, though often serious, is increasingly well understood so that we can assess the reliability and usefulness of the results which can now be obtained in catalysis studies and a wide range of surface science applications. These new developments and many others in more established surface techniques are all described in this book, based on lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, Sicily, at Easter 1987. It is regretted that a few lectures on low energy electron diffraction and channeling effects could not be included. Fifteen lecturers from seven different Countries and 67 students from 23 Countries and a wide variety of backgrounds attended the school.

Specimen Handling, Preparation, and Treatments in Surface Characterization

Specimen Handling, Preparation, and Treatments in Surface Characterization PDF Author: Alvin W. Czanderna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306469138
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 302

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Book Description
With the development in the 1960s of ultrahigh vacuum equipment and techniques and electron, X-ray, and ion beam techniques to determine the structure and composition of interfaces, activities in the field of surface science grew nearly exponentially. Today surface science impacts all major fields of study from physical to biological sciences, from physics to chemistry, and all engineering disciplines. The materials and phenomena characterized by surface science range from se- conductors, where the impact of surface science has been critical to progress, to metals and ceramics, where selected contributions have been important, to bio- terials, where contributions are just beginning to impact the field, to textiles, where the impact has been marginal. With such a range of fields and applications, questions about sample selection, preparation, treatment, and handling are difficult to cover completely in one review article or one chapter. Therefore, the editors of this book have assembled a range of experts with experience in the major fields impacted by surface characterization. It is the only book which treats the subject of sample handling, preparation, and treatment for surface characterization. It is full of tricks, cautions, and handy tips to make the laboratory scientist’s life easier. With respect to organization of the book, the topics range from discussion of vacuum to discussion of biological, organic, elemental or compound samples, to samples prepared ex situ or in situ to the vacuum, to deposition ofthin films. Generic considerations of sample preparation are also given.

Surface characterization of 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes)

Surface characterization of 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes) PDF Author: Ingemar Persson
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176850854
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 68

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Book Description
Research on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a rapidly growing field owing to the wide range of new interesting properties found in 2D structures that are vastly different from their three-dimensional (3D) analogues. In addition, 2D materials embodies a significant surface area that facilitates a high degree of surface reactions per unit volume or mass, that is imperative in many applications such as catalysis, energy storage, energy conversion, filtration, and single molecule sensing. MXenes constitute a family of 2D materials consisting of transition metal carbides and/or nitrides, which are typically formed after selective etching of their 3D parent MAX phases. The latter, are a family of nanolaminated compounds that typically follow the formula Mn+1AXn (n=1-3), where M is a transition metal, A is a group 13 or 14 element, and X is C and or N. Selective etching by aqueous F- containing acids removes the A layer leaving 2D Mn+1Xn slabs instantly terminated by a mix of O-, OH- and F-groups. The first and most investigated MXene is Ti3C2TX, where TX stands for surface termination, which has shown record properties in a range of applications (eg. electrode in Li-batteries, supercapacitors, sieving membrane, electromagnetic interference shielding, and carbon capture). Adding to that, over 30 different MXenes have been discovered since 2011, exhibiting alternative or superior properties. Most importantly, elegant routes for property design in the MXene family has been demonstrated, by means of either varying the chemistry in the Mn+1Xn compound, by alloying two M elements, or by changing the structure of the MXene by introducing vacancies. The present work has a led to an additional route for post synthesis property tuning in MXenes by manipulation of surface termination elements. This enables a unique toolbox for property tuning which is not available to other 2D materials and is highly beneficial for applications that is dependent on surface reactions. Furthermore, chemical and structural characterization of terminations on single sheets is essential to rule out the influence of intercalants or contamination that is typically present in multilayer MXene samples or thin films. For that purpose, a method for preparing isolated contamination free single sheets of MXene samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization was established. In order to determine vacancy and termination sites, atomically resolved scanning (S)TEM imaging and image simulations was carried out. Two main processes were employed to substitute the termination elements. 1) An initial thermal treatment in vacuum facilitates F desorption and it was shown that O-terminations rearranges on the evacuated sites. H2 gas exposure in a controlled environment demonstrated a removal of the remaining O-terminations. As a result, termination-free MXene is possible to realize under vacuum conditions. 2) CO2 was introduced as a first non-inherent termination on MXene by in situ CO2 gas exposure at low temperatures. That was a first demonstration of Ti3C2TX as promising material for carbon capture. Additionally, O-saturated surfaces were demonstrated after introduction of O2 gas on the F-depleted Ti3C2TX MXene, which is highly relevant for hydrogen evolution reactions where fully O-terminated Ti3C2TX are predicted to improve efficiency. A Lewis acid melt synthesis method was used to realize the first MXene exclusively terminated with Cl. Moreover, this was the first report of a MXene directly synthesised with terminations other than O, OH, and F. Furthermore, we have expanded the space of property tuning by introduction of chemical ordering, by selective etching of Y in an alloyed (Mo2/3Y1/3)2CTX MXene. This either produced chemical ordering with one M (Mo) element and vacancies, or ordering between two M (Mo and Y) elements. This was further reported to significantly increase volumetric capacitance because of the increased number of active sites around vacancies, leading to an increasing charge density. As a final note, the stability of Nb2CTX MXene under ambient conditions was investigated. It was found that the surface Nb adatoms, present after etching, got oxidized over time which resulted in local clustering and effectively degraded the MXene. This work has demonstrated reproducible surface characterization methods for determining termination elements and sites in 2D MXenes, that is ultimately governing MXene properties. Most importantly, we report on a new approach for MXene property tuning as well as contributing to several existing property tuning approaches.

Characterization Techniques for Perovskite Solar Cell Materials

Characterization Techniques for Perovskite Solar Cell Materials PDF Author: Meysam Pazoki
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128147288
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 276

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Book Description
Characterization Techniques for Perovskite Solar Cell Materials: Characterization of Recently Emerged Perovskite Solar Cell Materials to Provide an Understanding of the Fundamental Physics on the Nano Scale and Optimize the Operation of the Device Towards Stable and Low-Cost Photovoltaic Technology explores the characterization of nanocrystals of the perovskite film, related interfaces, and the overall impacts of these properties on device efficiency. Included is a collection of both main and research techniques for perovskite solar cells. For the first time, readers will have a complete reference of different characterization techniques, all housed in a work written by highly experienced experts. Explores various characterization techniques for perovskite solar cells and discusses both their strengths and weaknesses Discusses material synthesis and device fabrication of perovskite solar cells Includes a comparison throughout the work on how to distinguish one perovskite solar cell from another